For further background information please see the following
- Modell, Bernadette, and Matthew Darlison. "Global epidemiology of haemoglobin disorders and derived service indicators." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 86.6 (2008): 480-487.
- Giardine, Belinda, et al. "Systematic documentation and analysis of human genetic variation in hemoglobinopathies using the microattribution approach." Nature Genetics 43.4 (2011): 295-301.
- Kassebaum, Nicholas J., et al. "A systematic global analysis of death and disability due to haemoglobinopathies and haemolytic anaemias between 1990 and 2010." The Lancet 381 (2013): S73.